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Remaining Self-sufficiency Crops

Legumes Grains Seeds Broadleaf Squash Folates Root Crops Herbs Flowers Honey Bees/Pollen Mushrooms Wild Weeds Seawater Agriculture

These remaining crops are nutritious, but they have nutritional, processing, or flavor disadvantages. However, they are useful in that they provide a broad range of diversity for disease resistance and environmental adaptability.



Soak all legumes for 8-24 hours. Cook with low heat. Making tempeh will also reduce the anti-nutrients. Most legumes contain incomplete proteins and are best when consumed as a complement to grains. Some people are too sensitive to tolerate legumes, even after sprouting and fermenting.

Great Northern, White, and Navy Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris):

(Point of origin: South America) Advantages: Large beans are efficient and easy to harvest and process. For the young and healthy, these specific beans are some of the best sources of calcium. Good source of calcium for the elderly if sproated for 3 days and then boiled. Good flavor. Disadvantages: High levels of anti-nutrients Sources: Vermont Bean Seed, Johnny's Information:

    Phosphatidylserine - beans are very healthy for the brain

Soybeans (Glycine max):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: drought resistant long storing, high protein (but out of balance) Disadvantages: high enzyme inhibitors and phytates. Fermented as tempeh, natto, miso, etc. may be the only form fit for human consumption. Protein profile is out of balance. Supplement with high tryptophan grain. Source: Seeds of Change, Territorial, Bountiful Gardens

Fava (Vicia faba var minor):

(Point of origin: Disputed) Advantages: Survives to 10 F. Disadvantages: Long growing season. Requires cool moist conditions. Varieties: Banner Bean, Broad Windsor Bean Sources: Territorial, Johnny's

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum):

(Point of origin: Near East) NUTRITION: high protein low glycemic index Desi type is high in calcium Advantages: Requires slight drought conditions to set seed. Can regrow if frozen to the ground. Actually a vetch, so has different disease tendencies, and therefore good in crop rotation with other legumes. Disadvantages: Difficult to remove seed coat. Requires a long growing period. Requires warm dry weather to grow organically without fungicide. Variety: Myles (Desi type)

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.):

(Point of origin: Africa ) Nutrition: High in protein if allowed to fully mature. Advantages: Very drought and heat resistant. Quickly grows taproot over 8 feet deep. Disadvantages: Very susceptible to disease in high rainfall areas. Information: Purdue - cowpea **********************************************************


Most grains contain complete proteins which are slightly out of balance. They are even better when complemented with legumes. Grains are important as a carbohydrate source. They should only be grown on flat land in thick soils that will not erode from wind or water. They are classified below as dry, moderate, or wet weather grains. Some grains are slightly adaptable depending on variety.


Moderate Weather Grains:

Corn (Zea mays):

(Point of origin: Americas) Advantages: Excellant hog feed for carbohydrates. Gret poultry feed for carbohydrates and anti-oxidants. Easy to manually harvest, dry, and store. Ranked very high in carbohydrates per acre. Very micorrhizal dependent. Disadvantage: Many varieties are low protein, especially lysine. High gluten. Difficult for the elderly to digest due to gluten. Low in niacin which can lead to pellagra. Requires rock limestone to unlock niacin. Corn pollen is allelopathic. (Jimenez, et al. 1983). Nutrition: Yellow indicates lutein and zeaxanthin. Orange indicates carotene. These are the colors most acceptable in the market in egg yolk. Red, blue, and purple anthocyanin is often missinterpreted as blood. But these varieties have more protein and store longer. If you want your eggs to store longer, feed these colors to your poultry. Nixtamalization eOrganic - corn breeding for nutrition Quality Protein Maize FAO - corn and legume compared University of Guelph - animal nutrition Plant Physiology - improving corn Information: Soak and grind before feeding. Low heat cooking will make it even more digestable. C.S. Bell Co. - corn sheller Pleasant Hill - corn sheller Mysterious origin of corn Varieties: Under less than ideal conditions (cold and wet), there are some open pollinated varieties that perform even better than some hybrids. These are mostly dent type: Truckers Yellow 70-85 days, heat tolerant Wapsie Valley 85-100 days, cold wet tolerant, tolerates poor soil mostly yellow, orange, some maroon Reidís Yellow Dent 90-110 days, heat drought tolerant Golden Glow 100 days, yellow Henry Moore 110 days, yellow Glenn Beasley Red 115 days, mostly red, with some orange, and yellow Cornell - hierloom corn There is still much potential for improvement of open pollinated strains: Green Haven - development of open pollinated varieties New open pollinated variety development. For years when there is high disease pressure, there are a few flinty varieties available which have the high disease resistance factors of the ancient flint corns and also have moderately higher yields. They also store much better. Seed For Security - Indian Flint 120 days St. Clare Seeds - Indian Flint 105-110 days Wade's Giant Flint - 90 days Early corn: Early Alberta at 42-75 days, flint, yellow and white Yukon Supreme - 53-55 days, yellow Nuetta -57 days, mostly yellow, some maroon Orchard Baby - 60-65 days, yellow Fisher's - 70 days, yellow Painted Mountain - 70 days, flint, yellow, orange, and the rest of the rainbow Ashworth - 75 days, yellow (Early Golden Cross) Bantam - 60-76 days, yellow Early Riser - 80 days, yellow, orange, flint and dent Abenaki Calais - 85 days, flint, orange, yellow and the rest of the rainbow Cold germination chart Orange varieties: Strubbes Orange - 97 days, orange, red, yellow Wallaces Mortgage Lifter - 130 days, orange, yellow, stalky Drought tolerant varieties: Hopi Blue Anasazi Growing some early, medium, and late using dent and flint varieties may provide some insurance during unpredictable weather and upredictable disease patterns. They should not cross as long as they bloom at different times. ****************************************

Wet Weather Grains:

Triticale (Triticale hexaploide Lart.):

(Point of origin: hybrid) Advantages: Cold and wet tolerant. Good as poultry feed. Disadvantage: Flavor depends on variety. Requires variety best for each region. Information: Purdue - Triticale

Flax (Linum usitatissimum):

(Point of origin: Eurasia) Nutrition: Very high in ALA oil. Ok for humans, but difficult to digest. Best fed to animals since they are more efficient at converting ALA to EPA and DHA. Feed only small amounts as it imparts a bad flavor when used in large amounts. Properties: Cool weather crop. Only harvest when fully mature or it will still contain cyanide. At maturity, cyanide moves into the roots. Extremely dependent on mycorrhizae. Very fibrous roots that decompose slowly. Cover crop: Excellent as a cover crop if planted very early in the spring. Better than many other cover crops because it allows sunlight penetration so soils can still warm up. Prevents weed growth with a dense root mat. If planted thick enough, weed suppression can last 4-6 months. Mow strips before planting. Encourages the beneficial Streptomyces lydicus which is a saprophytic Actinomycete. Never plant as a cover crop except in the very early spring since this is the only time it can compete with weeds. Planting: Broadcast thick and disc harrow or rake. Plant no more than 1.5 inches apart in all directions. Plant in early spring before weeds can sprout. Thick shallow roots will choke out weeds. Information: Univ of Vermont - ultra cold hardy, 18-27 F Flax root Flax properties Research Gate - photosensitivity Flax Council - feed whole flax for increase omega 3 Springer - photosensitivity eCommons - photosensitivity Planting: Ultra early planting - some risks, but higher average yields Riverdale Ag Service - plant at least 20 days before last frost Angelfire - Plant at least 20 days before last frost Source: Bountiful Gardens, Territorial

Spelt (Triticum aestivum var. spelta):

(Point of origin: Europe) Advantages: Cold and wet tolerant. Good as poultry feed. Disadvantage: Difficult to process. Information: Purdue - spelt

Hulless oats (Avena sativa):

(Point of origin: Europe) Preparation: Soak overnight before cooking Advantages: grows well in cool climates tolerates heavy rainfall more than other grains hulless so fairly easy to thresh Self pollinated. If harvested at milky stage it is a nerve and sexual stimulant. Disadvantage: very small grain only use a small amount as poultry feed since it has some anti-nutrients Source: Johnny's, Seedway, Welter Kaltenburg, Great Harvest Organics, Albert Lea Seed House, Bountiful Gardens ********* Also see rice ****************************************

Dry Weather Grains:

Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum):

(Point of origin: fertile crescent) Preparation: Soak overnight before cooking Advantages: greater chance of a crop before summer heat and drought set in. Moderate to high protein, yield is higher than oats. Self pollinated. Disadvantges: Be sure to grow the proper type for your environment. high gluten Nutrition: Great as poultry feed. Wheatgrass has very little nutrition. It isn't the wheatgrass that has unusual properties, it's the Tilletia caries that grows on the wheat grass that has phytohormones. Tilletia caries only grows under extremely hot moist conditions. Information: Mysterious origin of wheat Source: Johnny's, Seedway, Welter Kaltenburg, Great Harvest Organics, Albert Lea Seed House, Bountiful Gardens Ancient Wheat

Millet (several genus species):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: Very drought tolerant. Will tolerate waterlogged soils for a time. Good as poultry feed. Disadvantage: Uneven ripening. Small grain. Information:

Amaranth (Amaranthus sp.):

(Point of origin: Central / South America ) Advantages: Very drought tolerant. Good as poultry feed if cooked. Disadvantage: Should be cooked to remove as many of the anti-nutrients as possible for poultry feed. Not ideal for humans since cooking will not remove oxalates. Information: Purdue - Amaranth

Teff (Eragrostis tef):

(Point of origin: Africa) Advantages: Very drought tolerant. Will tolerate waterlogged soils for a time. Disadvantage: Very small seed. Information: Wikipedia Harvesting Teff ******** Grains not included because they are high in anti-nutrients which cannot be removed with heat: Rye, Barley, Sorghum, Quinoa Sorghum is better used as a disease break and mycorrhizal fungus encouragement. Sorghum is rattooning. **********************************************************


Sesame (Sesamum indicum):

Origin: Africa Nutrition: Extremely rich in calcium / magnesium, protein, other minerals, vitamins, etc. After fermentation and cooking, grind the seeds up to release the nutrients. Be sure to grow the large seeded variety; not the small confectionary type. Advantages: Very heat and drought tolerant. Pest and disease resistant. Stores extremely well for long periods. Disadvantages: Ultra high in oxalates and phytates. Requires fermentation and processing. Requires 90-120 frost free warm days. Information: Purdue - cultivation Complete removal phytates with lactobacillus ferment Wikipedia Seed: Bountiful Gardens Kitazawa Seed Redwood Seeds Amazon Artfire Sustainable Seeds Southern Exposure Hancock Seed *********************

Chia (Salvia hispanica):

Origin: Southwest America Nutrition: seed is very rich in Omega 3 Advantages: excellent for laying hens to increase levels in their eggs Disadvantages: Only grows well in dry regions with long growing periods Information: USDA Plant Guide - Chia Univ. of Kentucky - Chia *******************

Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum):

Origin: Southern Europe Nutrition: Seed is very medicinal for liver. Anti-cancer. Advantages: Very easy to grow; annual or biennial. Nitrogen scavenger so excellant planted next to root crops with low nitrogen uptake. Too nutritious and easy to grow to pass up. Disadvantages: Eradication required in some areas. Can be toxic to cattle if nitrogen fertilizer used, since it accumulates nitrogen. More of a problem in conventional agriculture than organic. Mildly invasive, so must be managed responsibly. Harvest all seed immediately when ripe. Information: Wikipedia Invasive Plant Atlas Cab Direct - goats eat Silybum marianum Goats destroy Silybum marianum seed Thistle reduced by AMF Silymarin related to planting date ********************

Hemp (Cannabis sativa):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: Complete high protein, easy to grow High bio-mass producer even on low fertility. Low water requirement. No gluten. moderate Omega-3 and high omega-6. Disadvantage: In the U.S., legalized in many states, but not federally approved. Some of the countries where it is grown commercially: Australia, Austria, Canada, China, Great Britain, France, Russia, Spain, etc. Information: Protein per acre - second only to soy Hemp history Medical Cannabis Natural News - Raw Cannabis Hemp Oil Juicing Cannabis SCLabs - terpenes Analytical360 - CBD and alpha pinene **********************************************************



Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum):

(Point of origin: Asia) Advantages: grows well under cool moist conditions gluten free Rich in rutin and quercetin. complete high protein excellent poultry feed great cover / catch crop quick maturing Weak mycorrhizal relationship Disadvantages: requires cool conditions during blooming high in enzyme inhibitors easily lodges in high wind low yield Sources: Bountiful Gardens *******

Borage (Borago officinalis):

(Point of origin: Mediterranean ) Advantages: Cooked greens taste like cucumber. Thick deep growing root. Direct sow seed early. Disadvantages: An annual that will resow itself easily and become weedy. Leaves are slightly toxic so do not eat too much. Never plant in the garden. Only grow in fields if you have animals to graze it and keep it under control. Nutrition: high in Vitamin C, A. fiber and flavor ***********************************************


Squash family (Cucurbitaceae): (point of origin: the Americas) nutrition: converts to sugar quickly so do not eat too much. good source of B6. insect control: grow up on a wire fence to control the squash bug keep away from night lights to avoid moths seed saving: species will not cross, but varieties within species will cross. Grow only one variety of each species if you save your own seed. properties: deer resistant winter squash: Kabocha Gold Nugget (C. maxima): Properties: AAS winner. Sweet potato substitute. Sources: Territorial Tatume (Cucurbita pepo): Properties: Immune to vine borer. Alternate names: Calabacita, Calabash Other moschata squashes immune to SVB Cheese squashes, Seminole Pumpkin, Tromboncino Rampicante, Ball squash ***********************************************


Liliaceae family: Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis): (point of origin: Europe) nutrition: high in folate, B6 contains rutin high in purines. the more red, the greater the possibility of lycopene. preparation: eat raw properties: deer resistant varieties: Jersey Knight - especially good hybrid for cold regions Purple Passion - purple color Jacques Ma - red color propagation: by root division. self allelopathic so manure heavily or transplant regularly. sources: Thompson and Morgan, Territorial ******* Stinging Nettle (Urtica dioca): (Point of origin: Europe) Nutrition: Very nutritious. Consumed by humans and animals for centuries in Europe. Preparation: wilting or cooking slightly will neutralize the formic acid Propagation: Cannot be dry stored. Best planted in pasture fields for occasional use. Perennial. Propagated by seed, cuttings, or root division. Sources: Johnnyís Selected Seeds, Bountiful Gardens Richters Information: ELSEVIER - Native American Foods ******* Dandelion (Taraxacum sp.): (Point of origin: Europe, Asia) Nutrition: Very nutritious; greens and root. Moderate amount of oxalate so do not eat too much. Not appropriate for dry storage. Propagation: Biennial. Invasive. Best planted in pasture fields for occasional use. Propagated by seed or root division. ******* Lambsquarters (Chenopodium berlandieri or album): (Point of origin: Europe, Asia) Nutrition: Very nutritious; greens and seed. Very high in oxalate so boil the greens and discard water. Ferment and boil the seed. Eat That Weed - oxalate levels Propagation: Annual. Propagated by seed. Advantages: Very heat and drought tolerant. Very alkaline tolerant. Disadvantages: Invasive. Best planted in pasture fields since it can become weedy. Information: ELSEVIER - Native American Foods Weed Science Society of America Utah State University Identification: berlandieri for seed production U.C. Davis - Nettleleaf Goosefoot, odor Chenopodium ****************************************************

Root Crops:

Sugar beet (Chenopodiaceae Beta vulgaris 'saccherifera'):

(point of origin: Europe) nutrition: trimethylglycene in root. leaves are high in oxalates, so only eat the root. culture: wind pollinate up to 5 miles ******** Ground Nut (Apios americana): (Point of origin: North America) Advantages: Can propagate by root or seed. Taste is a cross between peanut and potato. Stores well dried. Perennial, so never plant in annual bed. Nitrogen fixation. Tolerates cool and warm weather. Disadvantages: Not drought tolerant. Not fully domesticated yet. Must harvest after long cold spell to reduce inulin (which is indigestible) to fructose. Not suitable as a staple. Nutrition: 11-16.5% protein. Increases mineral absorption. Anticarcinogenic antioxidents. Preparation: Must cook the root. Varieties: Until the University of Louisiana and Iowa State release their germplasm, current varieties are not very well developed yet. Information: Purdue Wikipedia Natural News - inulin converted to fatty acid ******** Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus): (Point of origin: North America) Advantages: Can propagate by root or seed. Stores well dried. Drought tolerant. Perennial, so never plant in annual bed. Disadvantages: Must harvest after long cold spell to reduce inulin which is indigestible. Nutrition: 10% protein Preparation: Stores well dried. Information: Purdue ********

Parsnip (Apiaceae Pastinaca sativa):

(point of origin: Eurasia) NUTRITION: medicinal harvest before frosts before it turns to sugar DISADVANTAGE: Converts to sugar quickly, so do not eat too much at one time. ADVANTAGES: Flavor is a cross between carrot and vanilla. If harvested before frost converts the carbohydrates to sugars, this crop can be parboiled, dryed, and used as a source of simple carbohydrate during times of adverse weather. PROPAGATION: very insect and disease resistant SOURCE: Territorial, Bountiful Gardens ********

Salsify (Asteraceae tragopogon porrifolius):

(point of origin: Mediterranean) nutrition: converts to sugar quickly so don't eat much propagation: very insect and disease resistant source: Johnny's ********

Rutabaga (Brassica napus napobrassica group):

(Point of origin: hybrid from Europe) nutrition: B6 converts to sugar quickly so don't eat much. preparation: does not store well propagation: will cross with turnips source: Territorial, Bountiful Gardens ********

Potato (Solanum tuberosum):

(Point of origin: South America) Disadvantages: High alkaloid content. Nightshade family so very disease prone. Difficult for the elderly to digest. Cook before feeding to chickens, ducks, geese, etc. Advantages: Northern Europe adopted potatoes because it prefers cool wet climates. Central Europe adopted potatoes once it realized that it was easy for an enemy to destroy a field of wheat but not a field of potatoes. It will survive heavy hail, fire, late freeze, high wind, etc. Good as chicken, ducks, geese feed if cooked. Easy to manually harvest. Ranked high in carbohydrates per acre. In rotation, helps to reduce Symphylan. Storage: U.C. Davis - potato Squidoo - root cellar Information: U.C. Davis - cultivation Disease Resistant Varieties: Elba - high yield, dormancy 4-10 weeks, 110-135 days to maturity, drought resistant Rio Grande - high yield, 10 week dormancy, 59-65 days to maturity, drought tolerant Yukon Gem - high yield, 16 week dormancy, 80-90 days to maturity Snowden - above average yield, 12 week dormancy, 90-120 days to maturity, requires consistant moisture Diseases and Varieties: North Carolina State - potato disease Wisconsin State - potato varieties Cornell - potato list Canada - potato disease Penn State - varieties Vegetable IPM Asia - variety diseases Yukon Gem Penn State - diseases Cornell - blight Alkaloids in potatoes. ********

Radish ( Raphanus sativus ):

(Point of origin: hybrid from Europe) Nutrition: high in calcium. Leaves are rich in quercetin. Boil and use the water. a little too spicy to eat much red varieties are high in lycopene ****************************************************


Parsley (Petroselinum crispum):

Origin: East Mediterranean Properties: Biennial. Curly leaved variety most commonly used for medicinal reasons. Curly leaved parsley requires longer maturity to develope chemical strength. Flat or single leaf is stronger when young. Growing: Freeze and thaw seeds repeatedly to stratify seed coat. Soak seed 24 hours for sprouting. Start from seed in pots in spring for transplant. Plain-leaved varieties survive freezing better than the curly leaved varieties. Can transplant again in winter while dormant. Will bloom early next year. Medicinal Properties: Contains compounds which are either chemopreventive or prevent the spread of cancer cells: apigenin, myristicin, luteolin, chrysoeroil, falcorinol, terpines More oils in fresh form Do not eat too much because also very high in oxalates which binds calcium. ( rosemary, thyme, basal, oregano, and mint also contain terpines) Rich in glutathione. Information: Super Food Parsley

Wild celery or smallage or cutting celery:

( Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum ) Origin: Mediterranean Properties: Contains Phthalide which relaxes blood vessels and reduces stress hormones Contains acetylenics which restricts cancer growth Contains phonolic acids which blocks prostaglandins Celeriac is a relative of wild celery and contains some of the same compounds (Apium graveolens var. rapaceum). Information: Laurie Constantino - leaf celery MyFolia - Apium graveolen var. secalinum Innvista On The Green Farms

Peppermint (Mentha ◊ piperita):

Origin: Central and Southern Europe Properties: Aromatherapy that is very soothing and calming. Source: Richters

Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare):

Origin: Mediterranean Properties: Perennial. Rich in quercetin. Use bulb like celery. Has a licorice flavor that wonderfully compliments squash or sweet potatoes. Information: Purdue ****************************************************


Calendula (Calendula officinalis):

Origin: Mediterranean Nutrition: rich in lutein Double and triple flower have the most yield but are the least perennial. Advantages: Excellent for laying hens to increase levels in their eggs. Wild varieties are more perennial. Information: Horizon Herbs - Wild Calendula Wild Garden Seed - Wild Calendula Outside Pride - Wild Calendula

Nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus):

Origin: Peru Nutrition: rich in lutein Advantages: excellent for laying poultry to increase levels in their eggs.

Hibiscus (Hibiscus moscheutos):

Origin: North Eastern America Nutrition: rich in antioxidants use for tart flavor Advantages: Hardy to zone 4 ****************************************************

Honey Bees and Pollen:

Advantages: Improves pollination rates on the farm. Honey is a very effective way to encourage cattle to eat old dry hay. Improves meat flavor if honey is fed for 2 weeks before slaughter. Bees can be used to collect pollen which can be medicinal. Clermont College - honey bee larvae and vitamin D Disadvantages: Anything other than rare very small amounts is not healthy. Also extreme promoter of tooth decay. Natural disease control: Michael Bush - allow bees to adapt Hops effect on bees Hops and bee study Paul Stamets - honey bees need fungus for a healthy immune system. Iridoid glycoside used for self medication - plantain, honeysuckle, and catnip. In northern habitats, grow the honeysuckle Lonicera fragrantissima. L. sempervirens is good but it requires bumblebees to chew open the base. The less cold tolerant L. purpusii is also good. Genetics: Most commercial genetic sources have not been properly managed. Instead, use local bees from native swarms or find a pre-swarm split from a local organic bee hive. Links: A top bar hive works great if your goal is to provide pollinators for your crops. Back Yard Hive - DVD Managing the Top Bar Hive A comb guide is essential FAO - Bees will reuse harvested wax. Penn State Ohio State Beekeepers Association Bush Farms - Queen Rearing Pollination links: Oklahoma State Flowers that attract bees: These can compete with spring crop pollination, but having just a few of the spring blooming varieties around helps insure diversity and bee health. Summer and fall is especially useful when crops are not blooming. Unfortunately, many of the flowers that are the most attractive tend to be very weedy / invasive and also toxic, so animals cannot be used to control them. Here are a few perennials that can be managed, are easy to grow, and will grow in cold weather climates. Bees are attracted to yellow, blue, and white. They have a hard time seeing red flowers unless they were also ultraviolet. Poplar is the source of bee propalis Winterbloom (Hamamelis vernalis) - early spring bloom Persian Ironwood (Parrotia persica) - early spring bloom Paper bush (Edgeworthia chrysantha) - early spring bloom White Clover (Trifolium repens) - blooms spring Sweet Clover (Melilotus sp.) - blooms spring Cotoneaster dielsianus or splendens or arbusculus or atropurpureus - blight free blooms spring Blight resistance Blue Salvia (Salvia nemorosa) - blooms spring through fall Creekview Landscape ************************************************************ Lamb's Ears (Stachys byzantina) - blooms summer Lavender (Lavandula sp.) - zone 5, blooms summer Colorado State Cold hardy varieties Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) - blooms late summer Blanket Flower ( Gaillardia aristata ) - blooms all summer Ultraviolet Gaillardia Trumpet Vine (Campsis radicans) - blooms mid-summer, early fall Purple Coneflower ( Echinacea purpurea ) - blooms mid summer Russian sage (Perovskia atriplicifolia) - blooms late summer, slightly invasive. ************************************************************** All Hylotelephium are deer resistant, fall blooming, and possibly all ultraviolet. Sedum telephium Ice Plant ( Hylotelephium spectabile ) - from East Asia, white/pink/red blossom Autumn Joy ( Hylotelephium telephium x H. spectabile ) - H. telephium is from EurAsia Russian / Orange Stonecrop (Hylotelephium kamtschaticum) - from eastern Siberia, yellow/orange blossom New England Aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) - blooms late summer through fall dark purple seems the most attractive Willowwood Viburnum ( Viburnum rhytidophylloides x V. lantanaphyllum ) - blooms spring and fall Winterbloom (Hamamelis virginiana) - early winter bloom Redbud (Cercis canadensis) - anthracnose Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) - anthracnose Serviceberry (Amelanchier sp.) - fireblight Serviceberry (Amelanchier sp. ) - blooming pattern Borage (Borago officinalis) - very weedy. Never grow in the garden. Only grow in fields with foraging animals to help keep it under control. Blooms summer and fall. Ranking of Flowers Connecticut Academia - Cotoneaster Melissa Garden Richter's Pennsylvania State Utah State University The Flower Expert - blooming schedule Northwest blooming schedule Honeybee bloom schedule Country Farm - bloom schedule Mason Bees: Mason Bees Rejects due to moth and butterfly attraction: Joe Pye Weed (Eupatorium purpureum) - blooms late summer / early fall Hyssop ( Hyssopus officinalis ) - blooms late summer not drought tolerant Anise Hyssop ( Agastache foeniculum ) - blooms summer through mid fall Veronica (Veronica sp.) - blooms summer *************

Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.):

Origin: Scotland, Europe Nutrition: pollen is rich in androstenedione Mycorhizae: Will grow Cantharellus cibarius, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus lutescens mushrooms Medical: Nyishar - androsteroid benefits Stephen Buhner - Natural Testosterone Plan Woodland Essence - Scots Pine Varieties: Conifers.rg - mongolica buds are more resinous USDA - Mongolian Scots Pine Pests and Disease: Scots Pine Pests Ohio - Scots Pine Pests ****************************************************


Advantages: Will grow under low/no light conditions. Rich source of copper, selenium, zinc, and iron. Excrete acids that can break down toxic compunds. Trees and shrubs grow better with more types of fungus. Can break down inedible wood cellulose and turn it into edible yeast / fungus. Disadvantages: Growing mushrooms is not easy. Extreme allergies are common. Requires in depth knowledge to keep from poisoning yourself. Process: Many fungus grow best in mixed woods. They seem to need the advantages of several different types of trees and shrubs. Yet another argument for bio-diversity. Inoculate trees and shrubs just before planting with a slurry preparation or mycelium transplant from local mushrooms. General Information: Broad discussion of cultivating mushrooms: Cornell - Forest Mushroom Production and Forest Health Creating a New Earth Electronic stimulation mushroom growth Spawn cultivation: Only the DIY beginner links are listed here: MycoWeb North American Mycological Association Identification: Mycorrhizal Identification YouTube - top 10 YouTube - Dr. John Dawson YouTube - Peter Jordan Medical: Academia - medical mushrooms for cancer Dr. Hobbs - medical mushrooms Wild Mushrooms: Edible Wild Mushrooms American Mushrooms Forager Press Spore Slurries and Mycelium Transplants: Mycellium Running University of Kentucky - mycelium transplant Erowid - mycelium transplant Google Groups - mycelium transplant Nutrition: Mushroom D2 is dubious Vitamin D Council - D3 recommended Photos: TCPermaculture ****************** Mycorrhizal Types: Growing these commercially is very difficult. But you may get enough for personal consumption and they will benefit your trees and shrubs. Truffles: Indigenous truffles may be more reliable and profitable. University of Kentucky Mycelium Running Univ Toronto - native American Truffles Truffles in the Pacific Northwest Iowa Truffles Native Truffles Truffles Worldwide Oregon Truffles Boletus sp: Defies reliable production. Wikipedia - many hosts University of Kentucky Mushroom collecting Mushroom Expert MykoWeb Coral: MycoWeb - Ramaria botrytis Truffle and Mushroom Hunter Mycorrhizas Wikipedia - Ramariopsis kunzei Wikipedia - Clavulina cristata Wikipedia - Ramaria formosa, poisonous Chanterelles: Wikipedia - Chanterelle Wikipedia - Cantharellus Mushroom Collecting - complex habitat MSSF - complex habitat Morels: University of Kentucky Crazy About Mushrooms Wkipedia Saprophytic Morels Black Trumpets: Crazy About Mushrooms Matsutake: University of Kentucky Chaga: Superfood Evolution - Chaga MyChaga University HedgeHog: HedgeHog Chicken of the Woods: Chicken of the Woods Amathyst Deceiver: Wikipedia Google Lactarius indigo: Lactarius indigo ******************* Saprophytic Types: These are some of the medicinal types. Garden Giant: Stropharia rugosoannulata - used by bees to boost their immune system. Paul Stamets - honey bees need fungus for a healthy immune system. Turkey Tail: Wikipedia - Turkey Tail Mushroom Expert - Turkey Tail Radical Mycology - Turkey Tail Shiitake: Center For Agroforestry North Carolina State Univ of Vermont ACES Maitake (Hen of the Woods): North Carolina American Mushrooms Univ of Wisconsin Northeast Organic Farming Association Wikipedia Planting Maitake in the woods Reishi TCPermaculture DACRES NC Mushroom Field Forest Oyster Univ of Kentucky Enokitake Mycellium Running World Society for Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products Fungi for the People Wild Man Steve Brill ***************************** Parasitic Types: Be careful about collecting these from the wild because you may bring back spores that can infect your orchard trees. Beefsteak Polypore (Fistulina hepatica): North Carolina Lion's Mane(Hericium erinaceus): This mushroom will also grow as a saprophyte. Youtube North Carolina Winter Mushroom (Brick Cap): Youtube ****************************************************

Wild Weeds:

Advantages: Historically, there have always been down cycles in food supply. It would be unrealistic to think that will never happen again. Wild foods and perennials that do not react strongly to changing weather patterns are among the most reliable ways to increase food security: grasses, clovers, dandelion, etc. A manual greens juicer is always good to have since the juices of many grasses, clovers, and leaves are edible as long as you do not eat much of the cellulose. Grass juicers Other common weeds that are edible: Kudzu, daylily, hickory, cattail, plantain, thistle, nettle, etc. Some of the more toxic ones are lambsquarters, pigweed, prickly pear, purslane, etc. The ones that can be propagated without seed tend to be the most reliable. Roots that can be propagated without seed are especially important: dandelion, ground nut, cattail, jerusalem artichoke, skirret, potato, cassava, sow thistle, etc. Widely fluctuating weather patterns will make seed unreliable. As long as your animals are also mainly forage based, you should have an increased chance of having sufficient food to survive whatever nature throws at you. Disadvantages: Not as tasty as domesticated varieties. Wild foods tend to be more toxic since they are not domesticated. Wild foods are also more susceptible to parasite contamination. Cooking is the best safety measure. They should only be consumed on an emergency basis. Links: Nutrients in mulberry leaves Eat the Weeds - mulberry leaves Eat the Weeds - grass. Eat the Weeds - clover. ****************************************************

Seawater Agriculture:

These techniques can be used even inland when water table salinity rises. Links: Mexico - seawater agriculture Eritrea - seawater agriculture Wadden Sea - saltwater potatoes Saline and wastewater in Israel Back to Garden for Nutrition Index